# Overloading plain text: CodeMirror marked ranges

Tuesday, October 30, 2012 javascript codemirror cm-internals

One common feature request that CodeMirror version 1 was fundamentally unable to support (due to its reliance on contentEditable), and which was thus built into version 2 from the start, is programmatically styling stretches of text. In version 2, you can call instance.markText(from, to, className), and it'll style that stretch of text with the given CSS class.

By version 2.16, it was actually possible to edit the text around and inside such a marked range without strange corruptions occurring. That version also added a way to query the marked range for its current position (if any) within the document.

Then, last month in version 2.34, marked ranges were integrated with the undo history, so that if you delete a stretch of text that contains marked ranges, undoing the deletion will bring back the ranges, not just the text.

And last week, prompted by use cases from two different customers, I decided to add a number of rather radical extensions to this API. In the current code in the v3 (future version 3) branch of the CodeMirror repository, it is possible to...

• Force ranges to be treated as atoms as far as cursor motion is concerned (the cursor is never inside of them—they are skipped over by one cursor motion, and deleted by a single backspace action).
• Make ranges read-only, so that they can not be deleted from the document at all.
• Collapse ranges, hiding their content.
• Replace a (collapsed) range with a widget, which is an arbitrary DOM node.
• Automatically clear (remove) a range when the cursor enters it.

The third one (collapsing) was the tricky part. If a range, which may span multiple lines, can be collapsed, that means that line boundaries are no longer as absolute as they used to be. If a range spanning the end of line one and beginning of line two is collapsed, content from line and line two ends up being rendered on what is visually the same line.

This broke a lot of assumptions in the existing code, which required me to completely rewrite a few pieces of the editor (selection drawing, character position measurement) and required subtle changes to many others. The fallout from these extensive changes are probably going to delay the release of version 3 for another month.

But it's worth that!

For one thing, I could simply drop the old line-folding (hiding) system and all its interaction with the rest of the system, since hiding whole lines is simply a special case of hiding arbitrary stretches of text. I've rewritten the code folding add-on to use the new APIs to hide precisely the folded range, and replace it with a little widget that can be clicked to un-fold the range.

The use cases that prompted these extensions are actually quite similar to something that some Emacs packages do: text as a user interface. If you make some text read-only, insert widgets where appropriate, and use styling to make it clear which text is editable, you can provide a rather smooth interface for things like forms, interactive prompts, or even, if you're willing to stretch it, games.

And there you have it. My secret ambition is to replace Emacs, at least for my own use. The concept of writing shells for everything I do in my text editor appeals to me. But the Emacs way of doing that is, unfortunately, firmly grounded in the 1980s (or 70s), and shows few signs of moving into the 21st century. The APIs are just to obscure, the language too slow, and the ecosystem too weird for me.

(A fair number of other parts will have to be put in place for CodeMirror to be viable as a day-to-day editor, but I'll talk about those in some other entry.)

Obviously, this castle-in-the-sky plan is not the only use case for the marked range enhancements. As a more concrete example, I hope to soon write an add-on on top of them that allows you to replace stretches of text matching a specific pattern with a widget, and then expand them back to regular text as the user moves the cursor into them. For example, in a LaTeX document, you could replace sequences like \epsilon with an actual ε character, and but when you copy a chunk of text containing that range, you'd still get the original \epsilon text, and if you move the cursor into it, it expands into that text and you can edit it at will. So the presentation of the document can be enhanced, without actually harming its consistency as a simple editable plain-text document.