Flows of energy

by Marijn Haverbeke (license)

Computing Indentation from Syntax Trees

Thursday, August 29, 2019 tooling codemirror

Most code editors have some concept of automatic indentation. For each language, they have some logic that can compute an appropriate indentation for a given line. They may immediately indent when you press Enter, or require some interaction to reindent a line or selection.

Even with the cleverest tools, there isn't always a single definite indentation for a given line. In a language like Python, whether a line should continue the current block or dedent to some parent block isn't obvious from the context. Inside multi-line strings or comments, an editor can only guess what the user is trying to do. But even there, having a guessed indentation that you may need to correct is usually more convenient than having to manually indent every line.

In the process of maintaining CodeMirror, I've written a lot of indentation logic for a lot of languages. Initially directly on top of the source string, by applying heuristic regexps to the ends of previous lines (which was as fragile as it sounds). Then from data left behind by the glorified tokenizers CodeMirror used for highlighting, which worked better, but required those tokenizers to do extra indentation-specific work.

CodeMirror (in version 6) is moving towards building real syntax trees for its content. A big part of the reason that many indenters are ugly hacks is that they usually don't have access to the information they need, at least not in a convenient format.

Syntax trees are that convenient format.

A Theory of Indentation

Most forms of indentation fall into two categories. They either indent relative to the indentation of some reference line, or they align to some specific position.

The first is the most common. If you have this code, the function arguments are indented relative to the start of the line where the argument list starts.


Because (outside of Lisp) you tend to have different indentation styles for different constructs, it makes sense to associate them with syntax node types. In the example above, we'd be applying the indentation style for argument lists.

To go from a line in a parsed document to an indentation, you first figure out the strategy that applies at this point, which you get from the innermost node that wraps the start of the line and has an indentation style associated with it.

if (x) {

That node may span multiple lines, for example in a block like the one above, when indenting the statements on lines 2 or 3, the wrapping node is the block node. That node's indentation style might say “indent one unit beyond my start line”. Because the block starts on line 1, with indentation 0, we indent the statements a single unit.

The start of line 3 is also inside the block. But because the line closes the block, it should not add indentation. Many node types have some constructs that they shouldn't indent—a closing token is one, but the else token in an if statement, or a hanging { in a K&R-style function definition, are others.

When the content of a bracketed node starts immediately after the opening bracket, many styles align subsequent lines with the opening bracket.


Here the indentation isn't relative to the construct's start line, but to a specific token.

Some constructs, such as multi-line strings or block comments, can indicate that they shouldn't be indented.

When I claimed that nodes compute indentation relative to the line on which they start, I was oversimplifying. If you have code like this:

function foo(a, b,
             c, d) {

The body block probably shouldn't be indented past the c. Yet it does start on line 2, which is indented 13 spaces.

When figuring out the reference line for a given node, you have to check whether that line starts inside another node (that is not a parent node of the target node), and if so, continue looking at the start of that node.

So in the example, we'd notice that line 2 starts inside a parameter list, which isn't a parent of the body block, and thus use line 1 as reference line.

Unfortunately, not all nodes should be skipped like this. For example, in this code the member expression foo.bar would match the description of a non-parent node covering the start of the line, if the syntax tree is structured like call_expr(member_expr(...), arg_list(...).


But we do probably want to indent the argument list relative to line 2. So this requires us to either use heuristics (such as only skipping bracketed nodes) or some extra language-specific information telling us which nodes must be skipped.


CodeMirror's new indenter requires language packages to attach indentation information to syntax tree node types. That way, even if the document contains multiple languages, it can figure out an indentation directly from the tree.

This information takes the form of a function that computes an indentation depth, given some contextual information like the syntax tree, the target node, the document, and the size of an indentation unit.

Being a function, it can be as complicated as it needs to be. There are helpers for defining functions that support common styles, such as bracketed nodes that align content to their opening bracket when that isn't the last token on the line.

Because content is often in a syntactically invalid state when indentation is requested, the indenter takes care to “enter” unfinished nodes in front of the cursor when determining the context for the indentation. For example, if you press enter after this unfinished if statement...

if (x < y &&

The syntax tree will look something like...

   binary_expr(binary_expr(...), incomplete),

Where incomplete means that the node was cut off by the parser's error-correction feature. The start of the next line is outside of all this, but because we know that the node before it was incomplete, we can indent as if we are in that node—so that puts us inside of binary_expr, which may not have an indentation style. But paren_expr probably does.

if (x < y &&
    // continue here, aligned to the (